alimentazione islamica wikipedia
Islamic art encompasses the visual arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by Muslim populations. L'ISLAM (Economia i societat: motor de l’economia, divisió social, religió. The most important Islamic festivals are Eid al-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر) on the 1st of Shawwal, marking the end of the fasting month Ramadan, and Eid al-Adha (عيد الأضحى) on the 10th of Dhu al-Hijjah, coinciding with the end of the Hajj (pilgrimage). The prohibition of usury and the revival of interest-based economies has resulted in the development of Islamic banking. Disfruta de millones de revistas, libros, películas, canciones, juegos y aplicaciones de Android recientes y mucho más estés donde estés y en cualquier dispositivo. :79 Further angels have often been featured in Islamic eschatology, theology and philosophy. And there is none comparable to Him.” [iv] Islam rejects polytheism and idolatry (shirk), as well as the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. , Great Mosque of Djenné, in the west African country of Mali, Interior view of the main domes of the Blue mosque in Istanbul, Turkey, Sixty Dome Mosque, in Khalifatabad, Bangladesh. Religious missions converted Volga Bulgaria to Islam.  Nader Shah, who overthrew the Safavids, attempted to improve relations with Sunnis by propagating the integration of Shiism by calling it the Jaafari Madh'hab. Signs in the heavens. Mu'tazila was a Greek influenced school of Sunni scholastic theology called kalam, which refers to dialectic. There are more and more new Muslim intellectuals who increasingly separate perennial Islamic beliefs from archaic cultural traditions. 382–83 in, Mohammad, N. 1985. , Most Muslims are of one of two denominations: Sunni (75–90%) or Shia (10–20%). Sufism enjoyed a strong revival in Central Asia and South Asia; the Barelvi movement is Sufi influenced Sunni Islam with over 200 million followers, largely in South Asia. Secondo altri, le linee guida della dhabīĥa non devono essere seguite rigidamente e invocare il nome di Dio - ossia recitare "Bismillāh al-Raĥmān al-Raĥīm" ("In nome di Dio Clemente Misericordioso") immediatamente prima di consumare i pasti renderebbe la carne permessa. However, in practice, this separation is not as rigid as it appears.  The Mughals gained power during the reign of Akbar the Great and Jahangir. The four Sunni Madh'habs, the Hanafi, Hanbali, Maliki and Shafi'i, were established around the teachings of Abū Ḥanīfa, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Malik ibn Anas and al-Shafi'i, while the Ja'fari jurisprudence was formed from the teachings of Ja'far al-Sadiq respectively. [vi] He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in need or distress calls him. Siljander, Mark D., and John David Mann (2008). Limbă; Urmărește; Modificare < Wikipedia:Articole vitale.  His two most notable works, The Book of Healing and The Canon of Medicine, were used as standard medicinal texts in the Islamic world and later in Europe.  Philosophers such as Al-Farabi and Avicenna sought to incorporate Greek principles into Islamic theology, while others like Al-Ghazali argued against such syncretism and ultimately prevailed. First steps in the science of vision", "It's time to herald the Arabic science that prefigure Darwin and Newton", "Socioeconomic Bases of Cultural Patronage under the Later Timurids", "Chapter Thirty – The Ottoman Empire, Judaism, and Eastern Europe to 1648", Development Centre Studies The World Economy Historical Statistics: Historical Statistics, "Generational Changes in the Leadership of the Ahl-e Sunnat Movement in North India during the Twentieth Century", A Dictionary of Albanian Religion, Mythology, and Folk Culture, "Are secular forces being squeezed out of Arab Spring? Apache/2.4.10 (Debian) Server at scienzaeconoscenza.it Port 443 1/4, The preaching of Islam: a history of the propagation of the Muslim faith By Sir Thomas Walker Arnold, pp. (CE) n. 1099/2009 (Regolamento (CE) n. 1099/2009 del Consiglio, del 24 settembre 2009, relativo alla protezione degli animali durante l’abbattimento), entrato in vigore il 1º gennaio 2013. :17, Within Islamic jurisprudence, jihad is usually taken to mean military exertion against non-Muslim combatants.  However, Islamic law would not be codified until 1869.  Different legal schools developed methodologies for deriving sharia rulings from scriptural sources using a process known as ijtihad. Muslims view heaven as a place of joy and blessings, with Qurʼanic references describing its features. This revival movement allegedly seeks to uphold monotheism and purify Islam of what they see as later innovations.  Later, there appeared criticism from the Muslim world itself, as well as from Jewish writers and from ecclesiastical Christians. It is a lunar calendar with days lasting from sunset to sunset. An important pioneer in this, Ibn al-Haytham is regarded as the father of the modern scientific method and often referred to as the "world's first true scientist". The Constitution of Medina was formulated, instituting a number of rights and responsibilities for the Muslim, Jewish, Christian and pagan communities of Medina, bringing them within the fold of one community—the Ummah.[B]. In origine gli arabi della Penisola arabica si affidavano a una dieta di datteri, farina, orzo, riso e carne, con scarsa varietà e davano particolare rilievo a prodotti derivati dallo yogurt, come il laban (in arabo: لبن ), un latticello a base di yogurt magro. Sawm is not obligatory for several groups for whom it would constitute an undue burden. Muslims believe that prophets are human and not divine, though some are able to perform miracles to prove their claim. Viene inoltre criticata, soprattutto da associazioni laico-umaniste favorevoli alla secolarizzazione della società, la concessione in uno Stato laico di deroghe per ragioni religiose alle norme legislative/sanitarie in vigore che regolano la macellazione. This page was last edited on 13 December 2020, at 12:03. The Earth and Its Peoples.  The manner of its application in modern times has been a subject of dispute between Muslim traditionalists and reformists. The central concept of Islam is a precise monotheism, called tawḥīd (Arabic: توحيد). Prohibited foods include pork products, blood, carrion, and alcohol. Someone who studies the science of hadith is called a muhaddith. :79 Angels play a significant role in literature about the Mi'raj, where Muhammad encounters several angels during his journey through the heavens.  Approximately 62% of the world's Muslims live in Asia, with over 683 million adherents in Indonesia, Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh. :22 Duties assigned to angels include, for example, communicating revelations from God, glorifying God, recording every person's actions, and taking a person's soul at the time of death. , Historically, sharia was interpreted by independent jurists (muftis). Many Muslims migrated as indentured servants, from mostly India and Indonesia, to the Caribbean, forming the largest Muslim populations by percentage in the Americas. In hadith literature, angels are often assigned to only one specific phenomenon.  Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari defended the Quranic description of paradise by asserting that the Bible also implies such ideas, such as drinking wine in Gospel of Matthew.  In Turkey, the military carried out coups to oust Islamist governments, and headscarves were banned in official buildings, as also happened in Tunisia. , "Despite the fact that they did not have a quantified theory of error they were well aware that an increased number of observations qualitatively reduces the uncertainty.  Their lack of affinity to material desires is also expressed by their creation from light: angels of mercy are created from nūr ('light') in opposition to the angels of punishment created from nār ('fire'). Ché Iddio vi ha proibito gli animali morti, e il sangue e la carne di porco, e animali macellati invocando nome altro da Dio. The phrase Bismillah in an 18th-century Islamic calligraphy from the Ottoman region.  His notion of sharia is twofold: On one hand, sharia applies to the voluntary actions of human beings. , Jihad means 'to strive or struggle [in the way of God]'. Ancora oggi, anzi, soprattutto se teniamo conto dell’abitudine assai rara presente nelle altre religioni, fare il pane in casa è più che una tradizione sociale. The Muslim world was generally in political decline starting the 1800s, especially relative to the non-Muslim European powers. Rumi wrote some of the finest Persian poetry and is still one of the best selling poets in America. Different branches accept different descendants of Ali as Imams.  Traditional jurisprudence distinguishes two principal branches of law,ʿibādāt (rituals) and muʿāmalāt (social relations), which together comprise a wide range of topics. Reciting the Quran with elocution (tajweed) has been described as an excellent act of worship. usury; Arabic: riba). , In a Muslim society, various social service activities are performed by the members of the community. In the broadest sense, the term ulema (Arabic: علماء) is used to describe the body of Muslim scholars who have completed several years of training and study of Islamic sciences.  Hoarding of food for speculation is also discouraged. ", harvtxt error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFEsposito2004 (, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Logic in Islamic philosophy § Islamic law and theology, Islamic world contributions to Medieval Europe, Muhammad and his companions in Mecca and Medina, abolished the institution of the caliphate, International propagation of Salafism and Wahhabism, religious authority, reliability, and/or authenticity, Council on American–Islamic Relations (CAIR), aversion to creating images of animate beings, The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World, https://www.worldometers.info/world-population/, Why Muslims are the world’s fastest-growing religious group, The Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World’s Major Religious Groups as of 2010, Factors Behind the Decline of Islamic Science After the Sixteenth Century, International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization, Sunni Islam: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide, Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs, Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population, 10 Countries With the Largest Muslim Populations, 2010 and 2050, The Future of the Global Muslim Population, "Book review: Russia's Muslim Heartlands reveals diverse population", "The world's fastest-growing religion is...", God Created the Universe with the Purpose to Serve Humankind, "Human Nature and the Purpose of Existence", The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, The Hadith §The Four Books (Al-Kutubu’l-Arb’ah), "Al-Qadr - Muslim beliefs - Edexcel - GCSE Religious Studies Revision - Edexcel", https://www.metmuseum.org/learn/educators/curriculum-resources/art-of-the-islamic-world/unit-one/the-five-pillars-of-islam, "Analysis: A faith-based aid revolution in the Muslim world? Ahmed, Imad-ad-Dean. La certificazione ḥalāl mette a sistema le complesse regole religiose attraverso l'applicazione di specifici standard sviluppati nel mondo.  Muslim immigrants began arriving, many as guest workers and largely from former colonies, in several Western European nations since the 1960s. They rejected the Sunni schools of law and allowed Ijtihad. , On Yawm al-Qiyāmah, Muslims believe all humankind will be judged by their good and bad deeds and consigned to Jannah (paradise) or Jahannam (hell). April 2015. Chi aderisce a questo tipo di "Bismillāh Ḥalāl" generalmente considera che qualsiasi cibo, sia esso una sostanza proibita o meno, diventa ḥalāl una volta che la formula rituale sia stata pronunciata. The first four caliphs are known in Sunni Islam as al-khulafā' ar-rāshidūn ("Rightly Guided Caliphs"). The Silk Road: A Very Short Introduction by James A. Millward. The majority accepted the legitimacy of the first four leaders and became known as Sunnis. "[ii], Others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. At the same time, Meccan trade routes were cut off as Muhammad brought surrounding desert tribes under his control.  Nevertheless, people would rely on revelation, because reason alone could not grasp the whole truth.  The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates and states such as the Ottoman Empire, trade, and conversion to Islam by missionary activities (Dawah). ", "Guaranteeing a Minimum Income Has Been a Utopian Dream for Centuries", "Islamic Foundations of Religious Human Rights", Generational Changes in the Leadership of the Ahl-e Sunnat Movement in North India during the Twentieth Century, "The Significant Role of Sufism in Central Asia", International Journal of African Historical Studies, Mysticism in Arabic and Islamic Philosophy, "Behind Stark Political Divisions, a More Complex Map of Sunnis and Shiites", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, "The beginnings of modern medicine: the Caliphate", "From Jami'ah to University: Multiculturalism and Christian–Muslim Dialogue", Review on JSTOR, Toomer's 1964 review of Matthias Schramm (1963), "Al-Haytham the man of experience. , Jamal-al-Din al-Afghani, along with his acolyte Muhammad Abduh, have been credited as forerunners of the Islamic revival. Nel mondo occidentale, halal rimanda specie al cibo preparato secondo le norme della legge islamica "[i] Other verses connect Islam and religion (dīn) together:[ii], "Today, I have perfected your religion for you; I have completed My blessing upon you; I have approved Islam for your religion. Within a few years, two battles took place against the Meccan forces: first, the Battle of Badr in 624—a Muslim victory, and then a year later, when the Meccans returned to Medina, the Battle of Uhud, which ended inconclusively.  The Mughal Empire was founded by Babur, a direct descendant of Tamerlane and Genghis Khan. Biologia. Pp. As a virtue, forgiveness is much celebrated in Islam, and is regarded as an important Muslim practice. "Arab Roots of European Medicine", Heart Views 4 (2). In its broadest sense, it is "exerting one's utmost power, efforts, endeavors, or ability in contending with an object of disapprobation." :97–9 The Quran describes "Angels ˹as His˺ messengers with wings—two, three, or four. Herat city for example matched with Florence, the birthplace of the Italian Renaissance, as the focal point of a cultural rebirth.  He also codified a method to determine the reliability of hadith. Then, in AD 634, Umar formally established the welfare state Bayt al-Mal ("House of Wealth"), which was for the Muslim and Non-Muslim poor, needy, elderly, orphans, widows, and the disabled.   The Quran emphasises that nothing occurs outside of His divine decree: 'Say, “Nothing will ever befall us except what God has destined for us.' 2006. After the signing of the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah many more people converted to Islam. The groom is required to pay a bridal gift (mahr) to the bride, as stipulated in the contract. The earliest three generations of Muslims are known as the Salaf, with the companions of Muhammad being known as the Sahaba.  For most Twelver Shias, offensive jihad can only be declared by a divinely appointed leader of the Muslim community, and as such, is suspended since Muhammad al-Mahdi's occultation in 868 AD. 1964. European Review (Cambridge University Press) 16: 219–227. However, Asharism accepts reason in regard of exegetical matters and combined Muʿtazila approaches with traditionalistic ideas.. ", Pew Forum for Religion and Public Life. Nevertheless, his writings only played a marginal role during his lifetime.  A Muslim (Arabic: مُسْلِم), the word for a follower of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, and means "submitter (to God)" or "one who surrenders (to God)."  Le musée a été ouvert en 1991 et est géré par la surintendance pour le Patrimoine culturel. Belief in these articles is necessary and obligatory upon all Muslims.  The prayers are done in direction of the Ka'bah.  Both Sunni and Shi'a sects agree on the essential details for the performance of these acts.  Sufism is also prominent is Central Asia, where different orders are the main religious sources, as well as in African countries such as Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Senegal, Chad and Niger.  Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam also teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded in paradise and the unrighteous punished in hell. "Zakat." :79–81 The set of rules governing proper elocution of recitation is called tajwid. Umar also introduced child support and pensions. , From a historical point of view, Islam originated in early 7th century CE in the Arabian Peninsula, in Mecca, and by the 8th century, the Umayyad Caliphate extended from Iberia in West to the Indus River in the east.  About modesty, Muhammad is reported as saying: "Every religion has its characteristic, and the characteristic of Islam is modesty.  Sunni Muslims also go by the name Ahl as-Sunnah which means "people of the tradition [of Muhammad]". The science of Quranic commentary and exegesis is known as tafsir. , Islamic tradition views Muhammad (c. 570 – June 8, 632) as the seal of the prophets, sent by God to the rest of mankind. , It is estimated that, by 2050, the number of Muslims will nearly equal the number of Christians around the world, "due to the young ", أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأشهد أن محمداً رسول الله, Lipka, Michael, and Conrad Hackett. , By the end of the 9th century, Ismaili Shias spread in Iran, whereupon the city of Multan became a target of activistic Sunni politics. For that reason, some academic scholars refuse to refer to the former as Sufis.  The Muslims in China who were descended from earlier immigration began to assimilate by adopting Chinese names and culture while Nanjing became an important center of Islamic study. Pp. 1 Descrizione; 2 Biologia. Performing prayers five times a day is compulsory but flexibility in the timing specifics is allowed depending on circumstances. Generally in a Muslim family, a woman's sphere of operation is the home and a man's corresponding sphere is the outside world. Listă de elemente pe meta:List of articles every Wikipedia should have/Expanded care lipsesc iw-link către Wikipedia română. , The generation after the death of Muhammad but contemporaries of his companions are known as the Tabi'un, followed by the Tabi‘ al-Tabi‘in. , The Barelwi movement, founded in India, emphasises the primacy of Islamic law over adherence to Sufi practices and personal devotion to the prophet Muhammad. The alliance attempts to bring the community together and to improve its quality of life. , The word silm (Arabic: سِلْم) in Arabic means both peace and also the religion of Islam. With Muhammad's death in 632, disagreement broke out over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community.  The government paid scientists the equivalent salary of professional athletes today.  Liberal Islam is a movement that attempts to reconcile religious tradition with modern norms of secular governance and human rights.  Sizable Muslim communities can also be found in the Americas, China, and Europe. Although some converted to Islam, the leading Meccan authorities persecuted Muhammad and his followers.  Islam is the second largest religion after Christianity in many European countries, and is slowly catching up to that status in the Americas, with between 2,454,000, according to Pew Forum, and approximately 7 million Muslims, according to the Council on American–Islamic Relations (CAIR), in the United States.  6 April 2017. Sunni Islam and Shia Islam thus differ in some respects.  He further rejected many hadiths circulating among Muslims during his time and relied only on Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim repeatedly to foil Asharite doctrine. Instead, they are also often called Islamic modernists. The Islamic holy books are the records which most Muslims believe were dictated by God to various prophets.  During the early Abbasid era, the major Sunni hadith collections were compiled by scholars such as Bukhari and Muslim while major Shia hadith collections by scholars such as Al-Kulayni and Ibn Babawayh were also compiled. The Qurʼan in Surat al-Zalzalah describes this as: "So whoever does an atom's weight of good will see it. Its supporters say that there are multiple ways to read Islam's sacred texts, and they stress the need to leave room for "independent thought on religious matters". Golden: An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples; In: Osman Karatay, Ankara 2002, p. 321. Some movements, such as the Druze (see Islam and Druze), Berghouata and Ha-Mim, either emerged from Islam or came to share certain beliefs with Islam and whether each is a separate religion or a sect of Islam is sometimes controversial. After the death of Imam Jafar al-Sadiq who is considered the sixth Imam by the Twelvers and the Ismaili's, the Ismailis recognized his son Isma'il ibn Jafar as his successor whereas the Twelver Shia's followed his other son Musa al-Kadhim as the seventh Imam. Signs in the heavens.  Finally, "Islamic civilization" may also refer to the aspects of the synthesized culture of the early Caliphates, including that of non-Muslims, sometimes referred to as "Islamicate". The obligatory Islamic pilgrimage, called the ḥajj (Arabic: حج), has to be performed during the first weeks of the twelfth Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah in the city of Mecca. This includes greeting others with "as-salamu 'alaykum" ('peace be unto you'), saying bismillah ('in the name of God') before meals, and using only the right hand for eating and drinking. Mughal India surpassed Qing China to become the world's largest economy, worth 25% of world GDP, the Bengal Subah signalling the proto-industrialization and showing signs of the Industrial revolution. , Since the events of September 11, 2001, Islam has faced criticism over its scriptures and teachings being claimed to be a significant source of terrorism and terrorist ideology. All meat must come from a herbivorous animal slaughtered in the name of God by a Muslim, Jew, or Christian, with the exception of game that one has hunted or fished for oneself. The empire was briefly interrupted by the Suri Empire founded by Sher Shah Suri, who re-initiated the rupee currency system. Muslims usually view "the Quran" as the original scripture as revealed in Arabic and that any translations are necessarily deficient, which are regarded only as commentaries on the Quran. Ali was assassinated by Kharijites in 661. Nel mondo occidentale, halal rimanda specie al cibo preparato secondo le norme della legge islamica. [xvi] One of the early teachings of Muhammad was that God expects men to be generous with their wealth and not to be miserly.  The resulting urbanization and increase in trade in sub-Saharan Africa brought Muslims to settle in new areas and spread their faith, likely doubling its Muslim population between 1869 and 1914. Per gli ebrei i divieti erano più dilatati; comprendevano anche il cammello, l’irace, la lepre, gli acquatici senza pinne e senza squame, venti tipi di volatili (Levitico II, 1-19). To avoid further fighting, the new caliph Hasan ibn Ali signed a peace treaty, abdicating to Mu'awiyah, beginning the Umayyad dynasty, in return that he not name his own successor. , The Shia Safavid dynasty rose to power in 1501 and later conquered all of Iran. Serjeant, R. B. Quanto a chi v'è costretto, senza desiderio e senza intenzione di peccare, ebbene, Dio è indulgente e clemente».  Legislative bodies which codified these laws sought to modernize them without abandoning their foundations in traditional jurisprudence.  The ensuing mandatory conversion of Iran to Twelver Shia Islam for the largely Sunni population also ensured the final dominance of the Twelver sect within Shiism over the Zaidi and Ismaili sects. L'attestato viene rilasciato dagli organismi che hanno emanato gli standard di certificazione, previa istruttoria eseguita da apposite società di consulenza. Watch Queue Queue. Nurcu is a Sunni movement based on the writings of Said Nursi (1877–1960) founded at the beginning of the twentieth century.  A common linguistic phrase demonstrating its usage is "he entered into as-silm" (Arabic: دَخَلَ فِي السِّلْمِ) which means "he entered into Islam," with a connotation of finding peace by submitting one's will to the Will of God.  It is argued that the data used by Copernicus for his heliocentric conclusions was gathered and that Al-Jahiz proposed a theory of natural selection.  Another famous source of hadiths is known as The Four Books, which Shias consider as the most authentic hadith reference. Abu Bakr, a companion and close friend of Muhammad, was made the first caliph. Islam teaches that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's command as expressed by the wording, "Be, and it is,"[v] and that the purpose of existence is to worship God without associating partners to Him. ", "Saudi Arabia – Country report – Freedom in the World – 2005", https://archive.org/details/berkshireencyclo0004unse_k2y1, https://archive.org/details/encyclopediaofis0001unse, University of Southern California Compendium of Muslim Texts, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Islam&oldid=993959695, Religious organizations established in the 7th century, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from April 2016, All articles with broken links to citations, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from November 2018, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2019, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from February 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Wikipedia articles with TDVİA identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, the role of Medina as a sacred place (barring all violence and weapons), a tax system for supporting the community in time of conflict, parameters for exogenous political alliances, a system for granting protection of individuals. The reign of Shah Jahan observed the height of Indo-Islamic architecture, with notable monuments such as Taj Mahal and Jama Masjid, Delhi, while the reign of his son Aurangzeb saw the compilation of the Fatwa Alamgiri (most well organised fiqh manuscript) and witnessed the peak of the Islamic rule in India. Un prodotto certificato halāl pertanto rispetta puntualmente tutti i dettami religiosi e può essere consumato dal fedele osservante senza che questi corra alcun rischio di commettere peccato.  In wake of the recent multiculturalism trend, Islam's influence on the ability of Muslim immigrants in the West to assimilate has been criticized. Questa interpretazione resta minoritaria tra i musulmani osservanti. There are five core beliefs and practices in Islam, collectively known as 'The Pillars of Islam' (Arkān al-Islām) or 'Pillars of the Religion' (Arkān ad-din), which are considered obligatory for all believers. Immediately after the birth, the words of Adhan is pronounced in the right ear of the child. " Throughout this expanse, Islam blended with local cultures everywhere, as illustrated when the prophet Muhammad appeared in Hindu epics and folklore.  In Iran, revolution replaced a secular regime with an Islamic state. The Seljuks played an important role for the revival of Sunnism, after which Shia increased its influences.  The first Caliph, Abu Bakr, distributed zakat as one of the first examples of a guaranteed minimum income, with each man, woman and child getting 10 to 20 dirhams annually.. The first Muslim states independent of a unified Islamic state emerged from the Berber Revolt (739/740-743).  His works on the Quran in the Risale-i Nur were translated into almost all languages of Central Asia. , On 3 March 1924, the first President of the Turkish Republic, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, as part of his secular reforms, constitutionally abolished the institution of the caliphate. A minority disagreed, and believed that only Ali and some of his descendants should rule; they became known as the Shia. Abu Bakr's death in 634 about two years after he was elected which resulted in the succession of Umar ibn al-Khattab as the caliph, followed by Uthman ibn al-Affan, Ali ibn Abi Talib and Hasan ibn Ali. , Criticism of Islam has existed since Islam's formative stages. The chronologically earlier suras, revealed at Mecca, are primarily concerned with ethical and spiritual topics. Ad esempio, il pane non si butta …  Under the Ottoman Empire, Islam spread to Southeast Europe.  Such aspects were seen to be strongly influenced across Islamic Gunpowder empires, mainly in Mughal India. alimentación islámica modales en la mesa por que se prohíbe el alcohol aves rapaces y animales carnívoros genera odio y enemistad sentarse a mientras come Servir Primero a otros, especialmente a los invitados comer juntos el alcohol impide a la gente el recuerdo de Dios.
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